John Swinney has urged the Chancellor to ditch his “fundamentally flawed“ economic policy and call an end to “deep spending cuts”.
The Deputy First Minister also demanded George Osborne use his pre-election Budget to bring in a package of measures to help the North Sea oil and gas industry.
Scottish Conservative leader Ruth Davidson and shadow Scottish Secretary Margaret Curran also joined in demands for Mr Osborne to take action in the wake of the “emergency in the North Sea”, where plunging oil prices have seen firms cut staff.
Holyrood ministers have been urging the UK Government to reverse previous hikes in the supplementary charge, which is paid by the sector.
In addition they want to see an investment allowance brought in and the creation of new tax credits for exploration, in a bid to increase activity in the North Sea.
Mr Swinney hit out at the Chancellor’s management of the economy, saying it was “fundamentally flawed and is damaging Scotland’s recovery”.
The Deputy First Minister said: “Despite the deep spending cuts we have seen, the Chancellor has not achieved the deficit reduction targets he set himself in his first budget in 2010.
“Between 2009/10 and 2014/15, Scotland’s budget has fallen by around 11% in real terms, within this capital expenditure has fallen by around 34%.
“This means our budget has been cut by a staggering £3.5 billion in real terms since 2009/10.
“And it doesn’t stop there. Scotland’s cumulative share of the cuts to day-to-day public spending over the five years to 2019-20 is forecast to be worth around £14.5 billion compared to 2014/15 levels.”
He added: “In addition to our proposals on austerity, the Budget must also deliver a permanent shift to a more competitive and predictable north sea oil tax regime, which will allow investors to shift their focus away from fiscal risk and towards the significant investment opportunities that remain in the North Sea.”
Ms Davidson also called on the Chancellor to deliver for the oil and gas industry, saying: “We are facing an emergency in the North Sea, and that has to be reflected in the budget.
“I’ve spoken to the Chancellor about this and he fully understands exactly what’s at stake, and precisely what’s needed to secure the North Sea’s future.”
She added: “We need to send out a major signal that the North Sea is open for business. With moves to secure its future, we can spur on investment and make sure this vital industry has the confident future the local economy and the wider UK needs it to.”
Meanwhile Ms Curran said: “Scotland’s vital industries need more support today. If the Chancellor doesn’t take action to support the oil and gas sector, Labour will in our first budget after the election.
“Hundreds of jobs have already been lost in the North Sea. We need to see urgent action to improve the tax incentives for North Sea oil investment.”
She said the Chancellor needed to deliver a “Budget for working people across Scotland” but added: “George Osborne has had five years in charge and he’s failed the tests he set himself.
“People are worse off now than they were in 2010, thousands have suffered because of the Tories’ cruel cuts and now he wants to take us back to 1930s levels of spending, before there was even an NHS.
“This would mean £2.7 billion taken out of Scotland’s budget. Labour will end Tory austerity.”
The UK Government insists the Barnett formula, which is used to distribute public funds throughout the United Kingdom, has increased Holyrood’s spending power by £2.3 billion.
Employment north of the border has increased by 187,000 since the coalition came to power in 2010, with the jobless total down by 70,000.
Scottish Secretary Alistair Carmichael said: “Being part of the UK has given Scotland an economic strength and resilience which stands it in good stead for the challenges of the future.
“Thousands of people across the country are better off because of the tax reforms we have introduced and the opportunities of employment our policies have created.
“We have cut tax for millions of people while making the right decisions about managing debt, putting our finances on a sound and sustainable footing.
“We’ve seen clear examples of where we can use our size and resources to weather unexpected shocks like the fall in oil revenues. The Scottish budget has been protected and bolstered, with billions more available to the Scottish Government to spend where it sees fit.”
The Liberal Democrat added: “This Budget is set in the context of the need to further reduce our national deficit.
“But it is also a Budget delivered in the context of falling debt, low inflation, record low borrowing and mortgage rates and a level of growth vying to the be the fastest in the G7. The measures announced will build on our recovery and safeguard our economy from further debt and risk.”